Finland’s national climate policy

The key pillar of Finland’s climate policy is the national Climate Act, which lays down emission reduction targets for 2030, 2040 and 2050.

The emission reduction targets are -60% by 2030, -80% by 2040 and -90 % but aiming at -95 % by 2050, compared to the levels in 1990. According to the Act, Finland must be carbon neutral by 2035 at the latest.

The impact of the Act on guiding policies and actions is based on the climate policy planning system. Annual Climate Reports are published to monitor the achievement of the targets and adequacy of the measures.

The obligations and policy decisions under the European Union climate and energy legislation are binding on Finland as well. The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 per cent by 2030, compared to 1990. Another aim for the EU is to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050.

Climate policy planning system

According to the Climate Act, the climate policy planning system consists of the Long-term Climate Plan, Adaptation Plan, Medium-term Climate Plan and Climate Plan for the Land Use Sector.

The Climate Plan for the Land Use Sector was included in the system by the reformed Climate Act. The new Climate Act entered into force on 1 July 2022. Now the sinks and emissions of the land use sector are also covered by the Climate Act, which lays down the target to strengthen the sinks as well.

According to the new Climate Act, the aim of the Act and the planning system is to ensure that the measures are just and to promote sustainable development.

The Medium-term Climate Plan presents the measures that will reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of the effort-sharing sector. The Ministry of the Environment has the responsibility to prepare the Medium-term Climate Plan. The Government submitted the Medium-term Climate Plan as a report to Parliament on 2 June 2022. 

Besides the emissions trading sector, the Climate and Energy Strategy published once during each electoral term covers the effort-sharing and land use sectors, maintenance and security of supply issues relating to the energy sector, and functioning of the energy markets. The Climate Act does not include provisions on the Climate and Energy Strategy. The responsibility for the preparation of the strategy rests with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment. The Government submitted the National Climate and Energy Strategy as a report to Parliament on 30 June 2022.

According to the Climate Act, the Long-term Climate Plan must present scenarios concerning the trends in emissions and removals that cover at least the 30 years following the adoption of the plan and in which consideration is given to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, strengthening of sinks and climate change adaptation. The plan is prepared at least once every ten years, and the preparation is coordinated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment. The Long-term Climate Plan under the new Climate Act has not been prepared yet. According to the Act, the first Long-term Climate Plan under it must be adopted in 2025 at the latest.

The Adaptation Plan contains an analysis of risks and vulnerabilities and, as considered necessary, an analysis of the different aspects of adaptation in different administrative branches, across the administrative branches and in different regions. The Adaptation Plan is prepared at least once every two electoral terms and the preparation is coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 

The latest Adaptation Plan was adopted on 15 December 2022. It will guide the actions related to adaptation until 2030. Adaptation is a broad and cross-administrative question and work on it is done in all administrative branches, which is why the plan was prepared in collaboration between eight ministries.

The first Climate Plan for the Land Use Sector was submitted to Parliament on 8 July 2022. The process to prepare the plan was started before the new Climate Act entered into force, which means that it was not adopted under this Act. The Climate Plan for the Land Use Sector specifies the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase removals in the land use sector. The land use sector comprises agricultural and forestry land and other types of land use (land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF). The plan contains measures targeted to carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural lands, and to forests, land use changes and climate wetlands, and it also presents an implementation plan and a plan on how the measures and their impacts will be monitored.

Monitoring of climate actions

The Ministry of the Environment draws up Annual Climate Reports that describe the trends in emissions and sinks in Finland and the implementation of emission reduction measures and their adequacy relative to the targets. The report is submitted to Parliament, and it serves as the basis for public discussion on climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Finland also reports to the European Commission and UNFCCC Secretariat on the progress made in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The national monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions is the responsibility of Statistics Finland, which also compiles country reports on the climate policy measures taken in Finland.

More information

Outi Honkatukia, Senior Ministerial Adviser 
Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Environmental Protection Department, Climate Environment Council  Telephone:0295250272   Email Address: