- European Commission: Waste
- European Commission: Circular Economy Strategy
- European Commission: Circular Economy Package: Questions & Answers
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal is the most extensive and important international agreement on waste. It regulates the movement of hazardous wastes between countries, with the aim of minimising the generation of such waste and its transport across national borders. The Convention entered into force in May 1992. A total of 179 states have ratified it so far.
The parties to the Basel Convention adopted the Protocol on Liability and Compensation for Damage Resulting from Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal in 1999. The Protocol is not yet in force internationally.
OECD member countries must supervise and control transboundary movements of waste destined for recovery operations in the OECD area. The aim is to strengthen, simplify, and clarify the procedures for controlling transboundary waste shipments to improve the level of environmental protection. The provisions of the Basel Convention and the OECD decision concerning transboundary movements of waste have been incorporated into the EU Waste Shipment Regulation.
- OECD: Control of transboundary movements of waste
- European Commission: Transboundary waste shipments in the EU
The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships (2009) has not yet entered into force internationally. The conditions for the entry into force of the Convention may be fulfilled when a certain number of major flag and recycling states have ratified the Convention. In Finland the process is also under way to ratify the Convention. In practice, however, the Convention has for the most part been implemented in the European Union by the Ship Recycling Regulation (EU) No 1257/2013 and the national legislation adopted by Member States to supplement it.